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Centrifugal Pumps
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Centrifugal pumps can be described as a rotating spade for fluids. Centrifugal pumps operate by using kinetic energy to move the fluids and utilize an impeller and circular pump casing. With every rotation of a centrifugal pump, an amount of fluid is driven out. The volume of the donut in the centrifugal pump represents how many gallons per minute that the pump is able to deliver.

 
 
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The head, or pressure, that the centrifugal pump will develop can be determined by the amount of velocity that the fluid has as it leaves the pump. The fluid is thrown off the vane tips. There is no relative motion in the center of the shaft but the fluids will move out to replace the fluids thrown off the vane tips. When this happens a low-pressure area is created at the shaft’s center, which is also called the liquid inlet or pump suction. Atmospheric pressure, or any external pressure on the liquid supply will force more liquid into the pump suction.

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The flow rate of the pump will determine how big the case will need to be to handle the amount of water desired, which is indicated by the inlet and outlet pipe sizes.

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Two or more impellers can be incorporated into the same housing if it becomes impractical to make an impeller large enough to get the desired head. This can be common in well pumps where the pump must be located inside the hole because it can be difficult to get a pump with a diameter larger than the hole to go in without using a hole stretcher. Hole stretchers are large and dangerous, not to mention illegal in most states.

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If you lack head in your system however, the velocity of the water will increase at it approaches the discharge nozzle. This will cause pressure to decrease and will generate a force that will displace the impeller at a sixty-degree towards 240 degrees from the cutwater. Likewise, if there is too much head on the system, some water will re-circulate back through the cutwater causing the velocity of the liquid to increase. This makes the pressure fall and will force the impeller sixty degrees from the cutwater.

   
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